ембриотрансфер

WHAT HAPPENS AFTER AN EMBRYO TRANSFER

After in vitro fertilization, the fertilized eggs (already embryos) are grown in a special medium for 2 to 6 days (liquid containing nutrients), after which they are ready to be transferred into the patient’s uterus. This procedure is known as embryo transfer (ET).

WHAT DOES EMBRYO TRANSFER LOOK LIKE?

Embryo transfer is a quick and painless procedure lasting 15-30 minutes. A speculum is inserted into the patient’s vagina and the cervix is ​​cleaned.

After confirming the patient’s identity, the embryologist aspirates the embryos into a catheter. Then they give the catheter to the gynecologist, who inserts it through the cervical canal into the uterine cavity while visualizing it with an ultrasound.

Once the tip of the catheter reaches the optimal position for ET, the gynecologist deposits the embryos into the uterine cavity. The catheter is then withdrawn and the embryologist checks it to make sure all the embryos have been transferred.

After the procedure, the patient remains for observation in the gynecological chair for about 30 minutes.

WHAT CAN I DO AFTER MY EMBRYO TRANSFER?

 After embryo transfer, you don’t need to make any  huge changes to your lifestyle. However, it is important to get enough rest, but not to lie down all the time. Avoid strenuous exercise, sex, and hot temperatures (bath, sauna, sunbathing, etc.). Stop drinking alcohol and smoking, and take your prescribed medications.

 And most importantly, take time for yourself and your partner, because you deserve it.

SYMPTOMS OF A SUCCESSFUL EMBRYO TRANSFER

 The only certain way to know if the embryo transfer was successful is through a pregnancy test. Many women experience pregnancy-like symptoms about a week after ET. However, this is not a guarantee of a positive result, because it may be caused by the hormonal medications that are taken before and after the procedure.

 The most common symptoms after ET are:

light vaginal bleeding

breast tenderness

frequent urination

mild abdominal cramping or lower back pain

fatigue

It is also possible to feel absolutely nothing different and still be pregnant.

WHEN SHOULD I TAKE A PREGNANCY TEST?

 Many women are tempted to take a pregnancy test the day after the procedure. This is not recommended because you can get a false negative result. The production of hCG (the hormone we test to confirm a pregnancy) begins around the 6th day after embryo transfer.

 We advise you to take a pregnancy test no earlier than the 16th day after the procedure, when the hCG level is high enough for the result to be reliable. You can take either a blood test or an at-home pregnancy test. It is important to notify your fertility clinic immediately, even if the result is negative.

НЕЖНА ГРИЖА

GENTLE CARE — ADVICES FOR LITTLE ONES

The skin, which is the largest organ in the human body, is composed of three layers — epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, as in the newborn it undergoes development during the first few months of life. At birth, its top layer is still very thin, not fully mature and easily injured. During the first weeks or longer for premature babies, the skin matures and develops its natural protective barrier and adapts to the new environment. You may notice that it is more sensitive and dry at times, but this is normal with adequate care and should calm down within three months.

Good skin care practices will help maintain the integrity of the baby’s skin barrier and can help prevent skin problems in the future. This includes proper cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection.

Bathing — how often?

Bathing frequency and time of day are based on your newborn’s individual needs. Use a mild soap-free cleanser if needed. Choose products that do not contain fragrances, botanicals and antibacterial agents, as these can be irritating to sensitive baby skin. After the bath, pat the skin dry, paying attention to skin folds. The use of baby powder or talc is not recommended.

Moisturizing and hydration

Apply a thick, unscented moisturizer daily at the first sign of dryness. Thicker creams are more effective than lotions.

Changing diapers

The diaper area is exposed to constant moisture, clogging and friction, which can irritate and damage the skin, causing a rash. To prevent this: Change your baby’s diapers often. Cleaning when changing is done with lukewarm water and soft disposable towels or a cotton swab. If necessary, a soap-free cleanser with a neutral pH can be used. If possible, leave your baby as much diaper time as possible

The clothes

Light, loose, soft clothes and cotton bedding are best. Be careful not to overheat your baby. Avoid rough, prickly fabrics that come into direct contact with the skin. To wash your baby’s clothes, use a mild, unscented detergent.

Sun protection — important and necessary

Baby skin is sensitive to the harmful effects of UV light. Babies under 6 months of age should be kept out of direct sunlight. When outdoors, light clothing, hats, stroller shades, and shade are the best protection against the sun’s harmful UV rays. When we have direct exposure to sunlight, a broad-spectrum SPF 50+ sunscreen should be applied. Choose a sunscreen suitable for babies or those with sensitive skin. Apply sunscreen 15-20 minutes before going outside and reapply every two hours. If the sunscreen causes a reaction on your baby’s skin, stop using the product.

Cosmetics

There is a wide variety of products on the market, which often leads us to the question «What should I choose?»

Generally speaking, it is recommended that baby cosmetics be as free from dyes, fragrances and aggressive chemical components as possible, as well as having a neutral ph.

SOURCE: APTEKI ZAPAD

ПРОБЛЕМИ С РАННА БРЕМЕННОСТ: ПЪРВИ ТРИМЕСТЪР

FIRST TRIMESTER: EARLY PREGNANCY PROBLEMS

Normally pregnancy lasts 40 weeks starting from the date of your last period. Additionally, those 40 weeks are divided into 3 trimesters: first trimester — from the beginning to the 13th week of gestation; second trimester — from 14 to 27 weeks of gestation; third trimester — from 28 weeks of gestation until birth.

 Each stage of pregnancy is associated with many and mostly positive emotions, but it has its own peculiarities . However, sometimes problems can  occur for which every woman should be prepared.

 GENITAL BLEEDING

 Light bleeding or spotting is common during the first trimester. In most cases, it is not a cause for concern, especially if it is not accompanied by other symptoms (for example, abdominal pain). However, it is absolutely necessary that you get examined by an obstetrician-gynecologist to rule out some serious complications.

NAUSEA AND VOMITING

 Almost all pregnant women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester. This is due to increased levels of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). Sometimes the vomiting is so intense that it poses a serious risk to the mother (extreme dehydration and inability to take in nutrients), which in turn affects the baby. Such a condition is called hyperemesis gravidarum and is fortunately rare.

MISCARRIAGE

 Most miscarriages occur in the first trimester. The reasons for them are plenty: chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo, infections, endocrine and autoimmune disorders, etc. Symptoms of miscarriage include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, nausea and/or vomiting.

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

 An ectopic pregnancy is implantation of the embryo outside the uterine cavity, most often in one of the fallopian tubes. Because the fallopian tubes cannot increase in size like the uterus, the growth of the implanted embryo can cause them to rupture. The characteristic symptoms are amenorrhea (absence of menstruation for a few months), severe pain on one side of the abdomen, bleeding. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy as well as miscarriage require urgent medical intervention.

CAN I PREVENT SOME PROBLEMS?

Unfortunately, most first trimester complications are beyond the pregnant woman’s control. What you can do is take care of both your emotional and physical health: stick to a balanced diet and exercise regime, stop smoking and alcohol consumption. And most importantly — if you have concerns that something is wrong, seek promptly medical help!

Основни правила на хранене, когато се опитвате да забременеете

СПОНТАНЕН АБОРТ

ИН ВИТРО ПРОЦЕДУРА И РАННА МЕНОПАУЗА

IN VITRO FERTILIZATION AND EARLY MENOPAUSE

Early menopause or «premature ovarian insufficiency» describes a condition where the function of the ovaries is reduced and they produce mature oocytes significantly less often than normally (every month). The term “premature ovarian insufficiency” is used when the woman is under 40. The important thing in this case is that, although more difficult, getting pregnant is possible.

CAN IN VITRO FERTILIZATION CAUSE EARLY MENOPAUSE?

 There are myths that the treatment of infertility by in vitro fertilization causes a serious side effect — early menopause. These perceptions are due to the fact that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COHS) aims at the maturation of 10-20 follicles, instead of 1-2, as in a normal menstrual cycle, thus hypothetically reducing the ovarian reserve.

 The truth is that during a normal menstrual cycle (one without COHS), approximately 10-20 follicles begin to mature in a woman’s ovaries but only 1-2 reach ovulation . The rest are simply absorbed by the body.

 Another reason for the early menopause myth are some side effects caused by fertility medications: fluid retention, mood swings, hot flashes, headache. These unpleasant sensations largely resemble the symptoms of menopause, but disappear after finishing your fertility treatment.

 In conclusion, no, IVF does not cause early menopause. On the contrary, it is an opportunity for women suffering from this problem to become mothers.

TREATMENT OPTIONS

Premature ovarian insufficiency can have many causes. Depending on your diagnosis, your obstetrician-gynecologist will inform you about the possible solutions in your case.

If you are undergoing cancer treatment, we advise you to freeze your eggs before the treatment begins. According to the Center for Assisted Reproduction’s new regulations, the state will now finance egg freezing for cancer patients. The reason is that frozen eggs can be stored for years and their quality corresponds to your age at the time of freezing. In other words, they are of better quality, not only because they have not been exposed to the toxic effects of chemo- or radiation therapy, but also because of their younger biological age.

If your obstetrician-gynecologist decides that you can try IVF with your own eggs, it must be taken into account that when the ovarian reserve is exhausted, both the number and the quality of the eggs are  reduced.

There are other options for conception, such as using donor eggs. You can use an egg  from an anonymous donor or from a relative. New Life Medical Center has a donor egg program. We work with one of the largest donor egg banks in Europe to offer you more opportunities to make your dream come true.

If you’re keen to start planning your family, it’s a good idea to check your ovarian reserve. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is considered the most objective hormonal indicator of ovarian reserve. The test can be done in any laboratory, on any day of your menstrual cycle.

If you think that you might be at risk of premature ovarian failure, we recommend that you schedule an appointment with a reproductive specialist.

ПЪТЯТ ДО ЕДНА МЕЧТА

THE WAY ONE DREAM TO BECOME TRUE

There is no identical answer for how long the process of trying to conceive should take, as the path for each of us is different.

Statistics show that approximately one in seven couples may have difficulty trying to conceive. Whether it’s a question of blocked tubes, polycystic ovaries, a bad sperm test result, endometriosis, or an unexplained infertility factor, the struggles every couple goes through are something that’s still rarely talked about. Although there may be a number of reasons why they keep their experiences secret, knowing what to expect can help patients in the overall process of choosing a clinic, doctor and the most appropriate treatment method.

Fertility evaluation is essential to determine the cause of infertility and choose the best course of treatment and assisted reproduction technique. In the following lines, we will pay attention to the main reasons related to the male and female factor of infertility, as well as when we should contact a reproductive specialist.

About a 1/3 of infertility cases are related to the so-called female factor. The reasons why a woman cannot conceive spontaneously are numerous, as the treatment is different depending on the specific case.

Some of them are:

DISORDERS IN OVULATION

Ovulation disorders are observed in nearly 40% of women suffering from infertility. Among them, polycystic ovary syndrome and prematurely exhausted ovarian reserve are the most common.

ENDOMETRIOSIS AND THE ACCESSORY OF FALLOPIAN TUBE

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes can be due to endometriosis, past sexually transmitted infections or surgical interventions. It prevents fertilization, as well as the movement of the embryo to the uterine cavity (implantation). One of the mandatory tests in the diagnosis of infertility is the hysterosalpingography — a procedure assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis is the growth of endometrial tissue (i.e. the lining) in places outside the uterine cavity (uterine musculature, ovaries, tubes, internal sex organs, fallopian tubes and other organs). In the case where the endometriosis is in the tubes, this leads to the formation of adhesions that can block the fallopian tubes and prevent the sperm from reaching the egg and fertilization from taking place. Endometriosis is estimated to occur in 8-15% of the female population of childbearing age.

STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES

A large part of the congenital structural anomalies is asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally, when searching for the cause of an irregular cycle, prophylactic examination, infertility or spontaneous abortion. This group includes various congenital anomalies in the shape of the uterus — unicornuate, bicornuate uterus, double uterus, septum (partial or complete partition in the uterine cavity), etc. This includes adhesions that are the result of infections, trauma or surgical interventions that can disrupt implantation, leading to reproductive problems.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF GETTING PREGNANT ARE NOT JUST A WOMAN’S PROBLEM

Male factor of infertility, which is about 50% of cases of infertility in a couple, can be due to a number of causes that include genetic factors, past illnesses, trauma, medications, and general aspects of health and lifestyle. These factors can contribute to problems related to spermatogenesis or sperm release. Regardless of the reasons, their diagnosis begins with an examination by a urologist. After taking a detailed history of past illnesses, infections, especially in childhood, operations, etc., as well as the current objective condition, the necessary tests and laboratory tests are prescribed.

A basic and indicative study is the SPERMOGRAM, which in most cases can give the diagnosis of male infertility. In the standard sperm analysis, four main parameters are examined — volume, concentration (of spermatozoa in seminal fluid in mil/ml), motility (of spermatozoa in percentage), morphology (of spermatozoa in percentage). The reference values ​​of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Kruger criterion for morphology are used in determining the conclusion. The extended spermogram differs from the ordinary one in that it includes an additional more detailed analysis and evaluation of the morphology of the spermatozoa. In order for the spermogram to be accurate, the man must have 3-5 days of sexual abstinence, no alcohol during these days and no antibiotics in the last month.

REPRODUCTIVE SPECIALIST — WHEN?

With regular sexual intercourse, without protection, if pregnancy does not occur:

For women under 36 years old — up to 1 year

For women over 36 years old – up to 6 months

The path of one dream to become a reality is always different, but you should never lose faith in achieving it!

Source : Apteki Zapad

POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME AND IVF

INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION - WHAT TO EXPECT?

INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION — WHAT TO EXPECT?

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the first assisted reproductive techniques offered to couples diagnosed with infertility. The procedure is quick, discomfort is minimal and the cost is lower compared to  in vitro fertilization (IVF)

WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE LIKE?

 During IUI, sperm, which have been separated from the seminal fluid, are injected into the uterine cavity using a thin catheter. After normal intercourse, nearly 90% of the ejaculated sperm die in the vagina. The goal of IUI is to get as many sperm as possible to reach the egg, thus increasing the chances of fertilization.

 IUI can be performed with both partner and donor sperm. Before proceeding with insemination, the patient’s ovulation is monitored by ultrasound and by examining the levels of LH and estradiol on certain days of the menstrual cycle. Additionally, it is possible, but not necessary, to stimulate ovulation with medication such as clomiphene.

Sperm remain viable in the female reproductive system for up to 5 days. The egg can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation. Therefore, the best time to perform the insemination is about 12-24 hours before the woman has ovulated.

 The procedure itself lasts 5-10 minutes. The patient sits in a gynecological exam chair. The sperm are injected through a very thin sterile catheter, after which the woman rests for about 30 minutes. Discomfort is minimal, with some comparing the feeling to a pap smear.

WHAT TO EXPECT AFTER IUI?

 Most women feel completely normal after intrauterine insemination. Mild abdominal cramping is possible. You can return to your normal lifestyle as long as you feel well.

 If you develop a fever or notice vaginal discharge, contact your treating obstetrician-gynecologist. Two weeks after the procedure, you can take a home pregnancy test, the result of which will be confirmed with a blood test.

WHO IS A SUITABLE CANDIDATE FOR IUI?

Couples who can benefit from IUI are:

Couples with male factor infertility

Unexplained infertility

Presence of antisperm antibodies produced by either partner

Couples with a negative postcoital test

IUI with donor sperm is suitable for:

 Women in LGBTQ relationships or those without a partner

Couples in which the man is diagnosed with azoospermia

Couples in which the man is a carrier of genetic mutations with a high risk of transmission to the offspring

 A mandatory condition is that the woman has no fallopian tube obstructions and responds to ovulation stimulation. The success of the procedure is age-related and is generally not recommended for women over 40.

 To find out if intrauterine insemination is the right approach for you, you can make an appointment for an examination with our reproductive specialists. They will order the necessary tests and create a plan tailored to your case.

КАКВО ПРИЧИНЯВА БЕЗПЛОДИЕ ПРИ МЪЖЕТЕ?

КАКВО МОГАТ ДА НАПРАВЯТ МЪЖЕТЕ

КАКВО ПРИЧИНЯВА ИНФЕРТИЛИТЕТ ПРИ ЖЕНИТЕ?

РУБЕОЛА И БРЕМЕННОСТ: ВСИЧКО, КОЕТО ТРЯБВА ДА ЗНАЕТЕ

RUBELLA AND PREGNANCY: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW

Rubella is a viral infectious disease against which a mandatory vaccine exists. Although it is relatively mild in most people, the infection is extremely dangerous for pregnant women and their unborn children, often leading to fatal consequences.

 WHAT EXACTLY IS RUBELLA?

Infection occurs through air droplets (by releasing the virus when sneezing and coughing) or when sharing utensils and household items. The incubation period (the period from infection to the appearance of symptoms) averages about 14 days. Mostly children are affected. The disease manifests itself with fever, enlarged lymph nodes, conjunctivitis and a  rash. Arthritis (painful and swollen joints) is seen in young girls and women. The patient is infected 8 days before and 8 days after the appearance of the rash. An asymptomatic infection is also possible in 25-50% of cases. This means that a person may have no symptoms but is infected and can spread the virus to others.

 Most rubella cases are in  Africa and Asia, in Europe — Poland (292 cases for 2019) and Ukraine (138 cases for 2019). Sporadic cases have been observed in Bulgaria, but the growth of anti-vax movements may lead to larger outbreaks.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS DURING PREGNANCY?

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occurs in newborns whose mothers have been infected with rubella during pregnancy. The virus is transmitted from the mother’s blood through the placenta, and from there — into the baby’s bloodstream. Rubella affects almost all organs of the developing fetus, and in most cases the infection leads to a miscarriage or a stillbirth.

 If the mother is infected before 12 weeks of gestation, babies are born with serious defects: blindness, deafness, congenital heart malformations, intellectual disability, low birth weight. They are also prone to diabetes and hypothyroidism at a later stage.

 When infected after 12 weeks of gestation, rubella primarily affects the lungs and babies develop pneumonia.

DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION

 Rubella is diagnosed by testing for specific IgG and IgM antibodies and isolating the virus from the nasopharynx. Antibody testing also provides information whether the person has immunity to the virus.

 All children are subject to mandatory vaccination against rubella. The vaccine  protects against measles, mumps and rubella. 2 doses are given: at 13 months and at 12 years, and the protection rate is over 95%. The vaccine is also suitable for adults who have missed vaccination. If you are planning a pregnancy, you should postpone getting pregnant for 1 month after the vaccine is administered.

ИНФЕКЦИИ ПРЕЗ ЛЯТНАТА ПОЧИВКА-КАК ДА ГИ ПРЕДОТВРАТИМ?

РАЗЛИКА МЕЖДУ ВИРУСЕН ГРИП И НАСТИНКА

ГРИЖА ЗА ДВА ЖИВОТА

CARE FOR TWO LIVES — PREGNANCY AND ITS CHALLENGES

Pregnancy is the period when taking care of your mental and physical comfort comes first!

Every woman strives for a problem-free pregnancy, although this is not always achievable. And again, if you are well informed and follow the advice of your obstetrician-gynecologist, this magical period should pass smoothly and as a result you will have a live and healthy baby.

In the following lines, we will pay attention to what future mothers should be careful and cautious about and how to continue the normal rhythm of life without worries.

The 9 months and the cosmetic products

While for some women pregnancy can be a prerequisite for healthy and glowing skin, in other cases the increased number of hormones during this period can have the opposite effect. Due to changing estrogen levels, it’s common for women to develop problem skin, even if they haven’t had problems with it before.

It is necessary to inform yourself about the content of cosmetic products before purchasing them

For example

— Retinoids — a type of vitamin A, they are usually found in anti-aging skin creams, anti-acne products, to treat age spots

— Beta hydroxyl acid (BHA) — contained in some cosmetic products for the treatment of dermatological problems, redness or inflammatory processes.

— Salicylic acid — part of the aspirin family, its purpose is to reduce redness and inflammation of the skin.

 — Parabens and phthalates — they are found in almost all cosmetic products — hair shampoos, lotions, creams, soaps

Even in minimal doses, toxic chemicals have the ability to penetrate the skin and mucous membranes, reaching the fetus through the womb. This, in turn, poses risks for your baby, and accordingly the cosmetics used must have a clean composition, without harmful and allergy-causing substances.

Focus on cosmetics with the purest composition and with components close to nature.

Medicines – the (non)dangerous necessity

Taking medicines without a doctor’s prescription during pregnancy is undesirable. The influence of medicinal products depends on the gestational age of the fetus, on the mechanism of their action, on the dosage and the general state of health of the pregnant woman. The risk for the baby is greatest during the first trimester, a period characterized by organogenesis. Treatment with inappropriate preparations during this period can cause congenital anomalies, early termination of pregnancy, retardation of fetal development, intrauterine death, congenital endocrine or other functional disorders.

Along with this, however, there are drug groups that are compatible with pregnancy and do not lead to subsequent problems in the overall development of the baby.

Medicinal preparations are divided into five groups depending on their effects on the fetus — A, B, C and D.

Category A are drugs that have been proven to be safe — folic acid, vitamin B6 and thyroid preparations (for the thyroid gland) in prescribed dosage.

Category B are medications allowed during pregnancy, including certain antibiotics, paracetamol, antacids, dexamethasone, ibuprofen (in low doses).

Category C — medicinal products for which the safety of use in humans has not been proven. This group includes ciprofloxacin, digoxin, furosemide, gentamicin, dexamethasone, omeprazole, etc.

Drugs in group D have a proven teratogenic effect in humans, but in the case of a life-threatening moment, their use is possible.

Anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving medications — taken in low doses have no proven negative effect on the fetus.

The most suitable medication for pain and high temperature in pregnant women, which has no proven negative effects on fetal development, is paracetamol.

Food — the pleasure with which one must be careful

A healthy diet is recommended during pregnancy to ensure proper and optimal fetal development. The principle: “eat as if for two” is not suitable.

It is recommended to avoid the consumption of fried and spicy foods. The use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products is undesirable. The consumption of coffee and beverages containing caffeine should be discussed with the attending physician.

It is desirable to exclude from your menu the following:

— Unpasteurized products — their consumption can lead to listeria caused by the bacteria Listeria or toxoplasmosis; an infection caused by a parasite. This food group includes Brie, Camembert, French blue cheese. You can consume them after heat treatment.

— Foods containing raw eggs

— Fish and seafood with high levels of mercury

— Raw-dried sausages and meat products

The Internet is an inexhaustible source of information that can often lead to additional confusion or unnecessary panic. Always, if necessary, seek a competent opinion or advice from your attending physician regarding everything that concerns you in this very special moment for you, when the care for two is twice as great, and the questions even more!

SOURCE: APTEKI ZAPAD

МОГА ЛИ ДА СЪМ С ПОЛОЖИТЕЛЕН ТЕСТ ЗА БРЕМЕННОСТ И ДА НЕ СЪМ БРЕМЕННА?

IS IT POSSIBLE TO HAVE A POSITIVE PREGNANCY TEST AND NOT BE PREGNANT?

Regardless of the desired result, home pregnancy tests are quick, easy to use and most importantly — they are available in every pharmacy.

HOW DO PREGNANCY TESTS WORK?

Home pregnancy tests detect a hormone called beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in  urine. It is produced by structures of the embryo during the first weeks of pregnancy, and then by the placenta. After that, the hormone enters the bloodstream and is then excreted in the urine.

HCG levels double every day. Many manufacturers claim that their tests are 99% effective on the first day of a missed period. However, early testing may give a false negative result. Therefore, we advise you to wait or repeat the test one week after a missed period.

For the most accurate result, test in the morning right after waking up, because that’s when urine is the most concentrated and  hCG levels are highest. If you need to test at another time, withhold bathroom trips for about 4 hours and restrict fluid intake during that time.

CAN MEDICATIONS AFFECT PREGNANCY TEST RESULTS?

Fertility drugs containing hCG may affect the accuracy of the test. All other medications, including antibiotics and oral contraceptives, do not affect pregnancy test results.

I HAVE A POSITIVE TEST BUT I AM NOT PREGNANT

A false positive result is possible soon after a miscarriage, abortion or childbirth. This is because it takes several weeks for the body to completely clear itself of all the hCG it produced.

A false positive result can occur if you recently had a biochemical pregnancy (a type of early miscarriage).

Gestational trophoblastic disease (a rare condition of abnormal growth of trophoblast cells) as well as some hormone-secreting tumors can also produce high levels of hCG, leading to a false positive pregnancy test.

Regardless of whether you’re pregnant or not, it is important to contact a gynecologist if you have a positive pregnancy test. They will most probably order some additional tests (ultrasound, more blood work) depending on your case and guide you to the next steps.

MISCARRIAGES: CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND EMOTIONAL SUPPOR

МОГАТ ЛИ НЕРЕДОВНИТЕ МЕНСТРУАЦИИ ДА СА ПРИЗНАК НА БЕЗПЛОДИЕ?

COULD IRREGULAR PERIODS BE A SIGN OF INFERTILITY?

The length of the menstrual cycle is individual for each woman, being normally between 21 and 35 days, with an average of 28 days. Variations of a few days each month are not a cause for concern.

 When the menstrual cycle is longer than 35-40 days, the condition is called oligomenorrhea.

WHAT CAUSES IRREGULAR MENSTRUATION?

 It is possible that lifestyle changes such as stress, traveling or strenuous exercise can lead to irregular periods. Your cycle will usually normalize after you return to your normal routine. Rapid weight loss or gain  also affects menstruation.

Teenage girls can also experience irregular periods during puberty.

 Oligomenorrhea may be present after childbirth until the hormonal balance of the body is restored. Breastfeeding suppresses ovulation and during this period menstruation may not occur at all (lactational amenorrhea). We remind you that breastfeeding should not be used as a contraceptive.

Hormonal changes in perimenopause lead to a reduction of menstruations until they completely stop (menopause).

IRREGULAR MENSTRUATION AND HEALTH PROBLEMS

 If you have had a regular period up to now and suddenly this has changed without an explanation, it is necessary to consult an obstetrician-gynecologist. Irregular periods are a symptom of conditions such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, endometriosis or premature ovarian failure.

Endocrine disorders such as hypo- or hyperthyroidism, as well as some hormone-secreting tumors (prolactinoma, etc.) are related to the length of the menstrual cycle.

IRREGULAR PERIODS AND PREGNANCY

Oligomenorrhea does not equal infertility. However, it may take longer to get pregnant.

For women with regular periods, it is easier to determine when ovulation occurs and, accordingly, the best time to try for a baby. This is almost impossible when there is no pattern in the lengths of your menstrual cycles.

The bigger problem, however, is when oligomenorrhea is accompanied by anovulatory cycles. These are menstrual cycles where ovulation doesn’t occur. Bleeding may occur, and is usually heavier or lighter than normal for the particular woman. Ovulatory disorders are one of the most common causes of infertility (about 30% of all cases).

Irregular periods are not necessarily a symptom of a serious problem. However, it is important to have your condition evaluated by an obstetrician-gynecologist. Depending on your personal priorities (pregnancy, contraception or other), you will be offered a plan of action.

THE FIRST DAY OF YOUR MENSTRUAL CYCLE?

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