BICORNUATE UTERUS — WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
One of the causes of infertility in women is congenital anomalies of the reproductive system. One of them is the bicornuate uterus.
It is caused by incomplete fusion of 2 embryonic structures called Müllerian ducts. This means that 2 «horns» are formed in the upper part of the uterus, which give it a heart-like shape.
The condition is usually asymptomatic. It is possible for women to suffer from painful or heavier periods. If there are other congenital anomalies (usually of the kidneys) complaints from the urinary-excretory system could be expected. In women trying to conceive, spontaneous abortions are more frequent.
PREGNANCY AND BICORNUATE UTERUS
Pregnancy in women with a bicornuate uterus is considered risky but not contraindicated. Expect more frequent OBGYN visits, as well as the possibility of the baby being born prematurely. Due to the unusual shape of the uterus, in about 50% of cases the fetus is breech, which means a higher frequency of c-sections.
Other possible pregnancy complications in women with a bicornuate uterus include:
Low birth weight of the baby (due to the smaller uterine cavity)
Arterial hypertension during pregnancy
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
The diagnosis can be made with an ultrasound. 3D ultrasound is considered to provide 99% specificity in the diagnosis of a bicornuate uterus. Other tests that may be recommended to you are MRI, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. It is recommended to have your urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder) checked out as well, because in rare cases concomitant abnormalities are possible.
Treatment is not required except in cases of recurrent miscarriages. Surgical correction of the uterus aims to remove the tissue forming the two horns, and the operation is laparoscopic.
Despite its challenges, a bicornuate uterus doesn’t necessarily mean the end of motherhood dreams. With advances in medical technology and personalized care, many women with this condition can carry out successful pregnancies. Regular monitoring and close collaboration with obstetricians greatly helps to mitigate potential risks and ensure the best possible outcome for both mother and baby.