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Iron deficiency anemia is a common condition worldwide, especially among women of childbearing age. When combined with pregnancy, the consequences become even more significant.

Iron plays a key role in the production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. During pregnancy, iron needs increase significantly to support fetal growth and development. In addition, blood volume increases during pregnancy, which necessitates the production of more erythrocytes. When iron stores are insufficient, this process is disrupted and this leads to iron deficiency anemia.


Several factors contribute to the development of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. These include insufficient dietary iron intake, increased iron requirements due to the growing fetus, and poor absorption of dietary iron. Women who have had heavy menstrual bleeding before pregnancy are at a higher risk of developing anemia.


Symptoms of this condition can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, dizziness, and a rapid heart rate. These symptoms often occur in healthy pregnant women. Your doctor’s task is to assess whether you may be anemic in order to prevent possible complications.

Pregnant women with iron-deficiency anemia are at higher risk of complications such as preterm birth (before 37 years), low birth weight, and postpartum hemorrhage.


Prenatal vitamins are routinely prescribed to pregnant women and usually contain enough iron to prevent anemia. However, you should not forget to consume iron-rich foods such as red meat, chicken, fish, beans, lentils, green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals. The absorption of iron from plant sources is higher when combined with foods rich in vitamin C, for example citrus, tomatoes or peppers.

In more severe cases, a balanced diet and vitamins may not be enough. Then additional iron medications can be prescribed in the form of tablets or intravenous infusions.

Not skipping your yearly check-ups, as well as your prenatal appointments help your medical provider diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia early, which can significantly improve your general health and reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.



Dr. Dobrinka Petrova: To make dreams come true

New Life Invitro Centre helps people with reproductive problems to become parents

Between 15 and 20% of Bulgarians suffer reproductive problems. New Life Invitro Centre helps both women and men to understand the underlying reason, to treat it adequately and to become parents. The manager of the clinic, Dr Dobrinka Petrova, shares more about the challenge to help create new life.

-Reproductive medicine is a huge responsibility. How does the New Life Invitro Centre meet these high expectations?

-We, at New Life, understand that the creation of new life is a crucial moment for everyone. We aim at the highest standards in reproductive medicine in order to provide our patients with the best chances for success.

The clinic is equipped with modern technologies and has an experienced team of professionals who work with care and precision. Our approach towards treatment is personalized, focusing on each patient’s individual needs. Our goal is to offer the most competent and empathic support while at the same time maintaining high ethical standards and safety of the procedures.

-The physician’s professionalism or the top technologies – what is the most important factor for successful results?

-The successful results from reproductive medicine are an exciting harmony between the team’s professionalism and high technologies. We, at New Life, believe that the two components are entwined and equally important for successful results.

The team’s role is crucial for the diagnosis, planning and execution of treatment strategies. The experience and specialisation of physicians and embryologists create the foundation for the individual and personalised approach towards each patient.

The technological innovations and high technologies offer the tools and opportunities that help for the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. The modern methods of artificial fertilizations and molecular diagnosis improve the chances for successful fertilizations.

For 10 years now we have followed the Israeli practice, as these specialists are masters of modern medicine. We are the first, and so far only, clinic in Bulgaria that implemented know-how from Israel and successfully applied it – as evident from our incredibly high results in the field of in vitro treatment and infertility treatment.

-New Life also partners with international experts in reproductive medicine. Tell us more about your partnership with them?

-Our partnerships with foreign experts make a crucial part of our mission to help our patients in achieving their reproductive goals. Our partnerships allow us to exchange experience, to learn from the best practices and to implement the latest innovations in the field of reproductive medicine. This cooperation not only adds to our own knowledge and skills, but also allows us to offer to our patients the most advanced and effective treatment methods.



мъж и жена си вземат кръвни изследвания


Before starting an in vitro procedure, both partners undergo a series of fertility and general health tests. These tests not only ensure the safety and effectiveness of the treatment, but also provide valuable insight into potential challenges and strategies to optimize success.


The first type of tests that are done are the blood ones for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. These are the most common serious transmissible diseases (transmitted from person to person), which is why the directives on cells and tissues of the European Union, as well as the Bulgarian legislation, require that all in vitro patients be tested for them. A positive result does not always require termination of the procedure. According to the Bulgarian law, the procedure can continue if „the treatment facility has equipment and a validated procedure for processing and separate storage“ of the infected biological material.

Blood tests for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis should be done NO sooner than 3 months before the day of the procedure (ovarian follicle puncture). If they are older than three months, they are no longer valid.

In the presence of risk factors (e.g. travel to countries with an increased incidence of malaria, cytomegalovirus, etc.), additional blood tests are required.


Both the woman and the man undergo a microbiological examination – of vaginal discharge and, respectively, of semen. The test shows whether these secretions contain microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, fungi) and what types. In men, it is mandatory to do urine test for chlamydia. The presence of certain species requires antibiotic/antimycotic treatment before the procedure. Microbiological tests of both partners should be done NO EARLIER than 30 days before the puncture.


Hormonal testing is absolutely essential in evaluating your fertility and determining the next steps in your treatment. They include:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2) – are tested on day 3-5 of the menstrual cycle.
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone – gives important information about the ovarian reserve.
  • Prolactin (PRL). It is examined 4 hours after waking up. 2-3 days before the test, there should be no sexual contact and breast stimulation, because this can lead to false positive results. Stress and certain medications also affect the results.


Depending on your medical history, you will be recommended additional tests, including:

  • Thyroid function test (TSH, fT3, fT4, TAT, MAT);
  • Oral glucose tolerance test. Its goal is the early detection of insulin resistance and diabetes. If you are already diagnosed with any of these diseases it is necessary that they are well controlled before starting IVF.
  • Screening for antiphospholipid syndrome;
  • Genetic testing
  • Vitamin B12.


As a first step, you will be required to do is a semen analysis. It is absolutely mandatory because it can diagnose or rule out male factor for infertility. The reproductive medicine specialist can also order additional tests – for example, testosterone.

To obtain the most accurate results, always adhere to the necessary preparation for a certain test. If you have questions or uncertainties, do not hesitate to contact your medical provider.




Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) involves the administration of exogenous hormones to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple mature follicles simultaneously. Apart from providing more mature eggs, the other purpose of COH is to prevent premature spontaneous ovulation, ensuring a successful follicular puncture.

COH is conducted on the basis of established protocols. The medications used can be tablets or injections that you can administer yourself. Depending on overall health, ovarian reserve, age and many other factors, the most suitable protocol will be selected for you.

As soon as you start taking fertility drugs, your OBGYN will start monitoring the growth and development of your follicles – a procedure called folliculometry. This involves frequent visits to the clinic, so it is important to choose a place to which you have easy and convenient transportation.


Ovarian reserve is among the most important factors determining the success of the in vitro procedure. It has been found that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) may be less successful in women with diminished ovarian reserve for several reasons, including:

Decreased response to stimulation: Women with diminished ovarian reserve may respond less well to administered medications due to fewer follicles present in the ovaries.

Ovarian reserve is closely related to egg quality. Women with diminished ovarian reserve may have lower quality eggs, which can affect fertilization rates and embryo development. Poor egg quality can lead to more frequent implantation failures and a higher risk of miscarriage.

In women with diminished ovarian reserve, cancellation of COH could happen more often. One of the reasons is an unsatisfactory response to the medications used. The other reason is the predisposition to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Although it sounds scary, such a decision is reached extremely rarely and only in the presence of absolute indications.


The IVF protocols used today have been developed to be successful in the treatment of infertility in women with a variety of problems. Your obstetrician-gynecologist will decide which protocol is most suitable for you depending on your individual case.

In cases of diminished ovarian reserve, you may be offered the use of donor eggs or embryos as an alternative. This bypasses the limitations associated with ovarian reserve and can significantly improve the chances of achieving a successful in vitro pregnancy.

Ovarian reserve plays a critical role in predicting IVF outcomes. It affects the body’s response to ovarian hyperstimulation, the quality of eggs and embryos produced, and ultimately the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy. That’s why reproductive medicine specialists pay so much attention to it when creating a treatment plan for couples with infertility.


инсулиновата резистентност изследване


Insulin resistance (IR), a condition in which the body’s cells become less sensitive to the hormone insulin, plays a critical role in various aspects of health, including reproductive health. This metabolic disorder is increasingly associated with difficulties in achieving and maintaining a healthy pregnancy.


Elevated insulin levels stimulate the ovaries to produce excess androgens and estrogen (male and female sex hormones), which suppress ovulation. The most recognizable characteristic of chronic anovulation irregular periods or even missing your period for months. This is an alarming symptom that you should notify your gynecologist about.


Insulin resistance and subsequent hormonal disturbances are closely related to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a complex condition that presents with a number of symptoms, including:

  • increased androgen levels
  • impaired glucose tolerance
  • excess weight or obesity
  • multiple ovarian cysts
  • irregular menstruation
  • skin manifestations: increased hair growth (hirsutism), acne, hyperpigmentation
  • mental health problems: depression, anxiety, etc.

The consequences of PCOS do not only include infertility. The syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as heart disease.


On the one hand, insulin resistance suppresses ovulation, and without ovulation, fertilization cannot occur.

On the other hand, IR affects the endometrium (uterine lining). Studies have shown that in women with IR, there is a reduced receptivity of the endometrium to the embryo, which would prevent implantation, respectively the achievement of a successful pregnancy.

Last but not least, maternal IR can be a risk factor for miscarriage and fetal complications.


While insulin resistance can pose a fertility challenge, the good news is that lifestyle changes can help improve your reproductive health. They include:

  • Appropriate diet. Switching to a balanced low glycemic index diet helps stabilize blood sugar levels. This means eating more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, fish, dairy products, and healthy fats. Aim to make gradual changes to your diet so they can become a lifestyle.
  • Physical activity increases insulin sensitivity. Both aerobic and weight exercises have shown positive effects on reproductive health. Workouts that are too intense, especially if you are inexperienced, can become demotivating. So start with some small changes such as daily walks or using the stairs.
  • Make sure you dedicate enough time to sleep and rest. Adults should sleep at least 7 hours. Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance.
  • Consultations with specialists. Sometimes lifestyle changes aren’t enough. Therefore, it is necessary that your condition be monitored not only by a gynecologist, but also by an endocrinologist, who, if necessary, will prescribe treatment.

Insulin resistance, with its implications for reproductive health, poses challenges to women who wish to conceive. However, active lifestyle changes and timely medical attention can greatly improve your chances of getting pregnant.




In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a revolutionary step in reproductive medicine, offering hope to couples struggling with infertility. One intriguing aspect of IVF is its association with an increased likelihood of twin pregnancies. As the demand for assisted reproductive techniques increases, understanding the considerations surrounding twin pregnancy resulting from IVF becomes paramount.


IVF is an assisted reproductive technique in which, after hormonal stimulation and ovarian follicle puncture, fertilization of eggs takes place outside the body, with the resulting embryo(s) subsequently implanted in the uterus. Depositing the embryos into the uterine cavity is called embryo transfer. The best quality embryos are selected for the transfer. Usually 1 to 3 embryos are transferred, depending on the patient’s age and medical history.


Twin pregnancy with IVF is usually explained by the transfer of several embryos. Identical twins are quite rare. Current recommendations favor the transfer of 1 embryo, except in some very specific cases. The transfer of more than one embryo is affected by various factors, including the age of the woman, the quality of the embryos and the presence of previous unsuccessful IVF attempts.


While the prospect of twins can be exciting, it presents challenges for expectant parents and their chosen medical team. Twin pregnancies are considered high risk because of the increased likelihood of complications for both the mother and the babies. They include:

Occurrence of potentially life-threatening complications for the mother such as pre-eclampsia and hemorrhages. Pregnant women with twins also have an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes.

Twins are often born preterm (before 37 weeks of gestation) and they may have low birth weight (under 2.5kg). In the case of twins, it is more common for one or both babies to remain for observation and treatment in a neonatal unit.

If you are expecting twins, this does not mean that you will necessarily have a complicated pregnancy. However, it is possible to visit your obstetrician-gynecologist for more frequent check-ups. That’s why it’s of utmost importance to choose a medical team you trust.


Първата година от живота на детето


This extremely dynamic period lays the foundation for good health for the future. One of the key components to ensure a healthy start is regular preventive examinations (child consultation) during the child’s first year. They play a vital role in monitoring child development, diagnosing potential problems early, and providing basic guidance on how to raise a child.

In this article, we will emphasize the essence of preventive examinations of children in their first year. Preventive examinations for children up to the age of 18 are regulated in the Children’s Health Program of the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). They are completely free.

The first year of a child’s life is a remarkable journey filled with rapid growth, constant change and countless milestones.


It is imperative that parents choose a general practitioner (GP) for their child as soon as possible after birth.

To reduce stress, it is advisable to find out about your options before the birth. The initial selection of a general practitioner is carried out with the „Registration form for the initial selection of a general practitioner“, which can be printed from the website of the NHIF, and is filled in together with the relevant doctor. If the parents wish, the follow-up of the child’s health status until reaching the age of 18 can be carried out by a pediatrician. For this, a one-time referral from the GP is required. Despite this possibility, the child’s immunizations are carried out by the GP.


Until reaching the age of one month, the newborn has the right to two preventive examinations. The first must be done within 24 hours of discharge from the maternity ward, which explains why it is important to choose a doctor for the child as quickly as possible. If this has not happened, the first examination takes place within 24 hours after the choice of GP or pediatrician. During the first examination, a detailed anamnesis will be taken regarding the birth: how it went, were there any complications. Have the records from the maternity ward ready for your child’s doctor to review. The child will then be examined. You will be given guidance and advice on baby care – breastfeeding, hygiene, sleep, etc. Don’t be afraid to ask questions, no one expects you to know everything about parenting. The second examination usually takes place 1-2 weeks after the first. According to the requirements, the baby is examined at home until the 28th day after birth.

FROM 1 MONTH TO 1 YEAR Your child is subject to a monthly preventive examination (child consultation).

Different activities are planned for each visit to the GP (examinations, immunizations according to the current Immunization Calendar, etc.). What they all have in common is that you will be questioned about the health of the child (taking an anamnesis), he will be examined, weighed, height, chest and head circumference will be measured. One of the most important components of a child’s consultation is the assessment of neuropsychological development. Through it, the doctor dynamically tracks the motor, speech and behavioral changes that are characteristic of the individual stages of child development.

AT 1 AND 4 MONTHS, the baby is subject to examination of the hip joints.

It aims at early detection of hip dysplasia. An examination by an orthopedist can be scheduled at discretion.

AT 6 MONTHS, an ultrasound of the baby’s excretory system is scheduled.

A general assessment of hearing and vision is performed. This is the time for the first preventive laboratory tests – blood and urine. If necessary, additional tests are appointed.

AT 1 YEAR laboratory tests are repeated.

Hearing and vision are again assessed. After reaching 1 year of age, child consultations are held at greater intervals. The described activities are the mandatory minimum determined by the competent institutions. If necessary, your child will be referred for relevant additional tests (laboratory, imaging, microbiological, etc.), as well as consultations with a specialist. Preventive examinations in the first year are indispensable in terms of timely diagnosis and solution of potential health problems. By investing in our children’s health from the very beginning, we not only protect their immediate well-being, but also lay the foundation for a fulfilling life.




It is believed that the beginning of stem cells research was established in the 1960s by Canadian scientists Ernest McCulloch and James Till.

Simply said, they are unique in their ability to divide, multiply, replace damaged cells and become cells characteristic of different tissues.

Sources of stem cells are bone marrow, the circulation, or blood taken from the umbilical cord after birth. Their formation begins in the very initial phase of embryo development – at the age of 3-5 days.

Most often, they are needed for the treatment of certain malignant or genetic diseases that are passed on in the family. Scientific research in the field of stem cells gives many people hope for the treatment of diseases such as Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Parkinson’s, Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy, Osteoarthritis, etc.

How are they retrieved after birth?

First of all, it is absolutely painless and safe for the baby and the mother. The umbilical cord contains two types of stem cells: hematopoietic, found in the blood of the umbilical cord, and mesenchymal, found in the tissue of the umbilical cord. Usually, both blood and part of the umbilical cord itself are taken immediately after it is cut. The whole procedure happens in the process of birth itself in a special sterile, pre-provided set. After transportation to the relevant laboratory, samples are taken for the presence of sexually transmitted infections such as spina bifida, syphilis, hepatitis, etc. and a sterility test. The number and viability of the isolated cells is determined, and if the results meet the standards, freezing is started. According to some scientists, the term for the storage can be unlimited if the cells are stored under the required conditions.

Types :

  • Embryonic stem cells – collected immediately after the birth of the child
  • Adult /somatic/ stem cells – found in tissues, such as bone marrow, blood
  • Hematopoietic – Generated during embryonic development
  • Mesenchymal stem cells – originate from the connective tissue that surrounds the body’s organs.
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells – created in a laboratory

Whether another family member can use the stored cord-derived stem cells or a so-called allogeneic transplant can only be determined after tissue-compatible antigen testing is done to determine the degree of genetic proximity that would allow their use.


Generally speaking, the storage period lasts until the onset of disease necessitating treatment by their transplantation. If not used at an earlier stage, the stem cells are stored for a period of 20 years.

After its expiration, the contract with the respective bank can be renewed by the already grown child. If you want guaranteed access to your donated stem cells, you must store them personally in a tissue bank of your choice. The other option for stem cell donation is to the National Public Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Donor Bank. There, the storage is free, but the difference with private tissue banks is that in the public one, the preserved biological material is made available to the people who need it, whether they are donors or those in need.

Source: AptekiZapad





– sulfur-containing tripeptide, which is produced intracellularly in the liver from three Ak – cystine, glutamate and glycine.

It is contained in every cell of the human body, making it excl. an important factor in the body’s immune and detoxification function. The body uses glutathione to fight inflammation, stress and toxins. Optimal glutathione levels also benefit the gut, brain dst, CVS, vision and fat burning ability. In addition, glutathione enhances the work of other antioxidants such as vitamin C and E, which makes them even more effective in removing free radicals, reducing oxidative stress and reducing inflammatory processes.


– reduces oxidative stress

– reduces damage to hepatocytes / liver cells /

– improves insulin resistance – reduces the symptoms of a number of autoimmune diseases

– supports fertility

– more and more studies show a positive relationship between optimal levels of glutathione and the treatment of infertility in both sexes.

Due to its natural antioxidant activity, glutathione improves sperm health and egg quality by maintaining a good metabolic balance. Especially in women, glutathione protects eggs from damage caused by oxidative stress during folliculogenesis.

Application: For optimal results, infusion therapies are recommended for 28 days – once every other week / duration 50 min


POWERFUL Antioxidant Resveratrol is an essential compound of the polyphenol family, which are powerful antioxidants. Known for its beneficial effects on health, it can be found in grape seeds, strawberries, nuts, red wine and other plant products.

Resveratrol is beneficial for health, having anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular properties, improves metabolism, reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus, positively affects metabolic pathways and glucose tolerance. Taking Resveratrol improves heart health by reducing bad cholesterol levels, increasing good cholesterol levels, and regulating blood pressure. As one of the most studied phytochemicals, Resveratrol is known for its powerful antioxidant properties and its multiple health benefits, which are as follows:

  • helps improve heart and vascular health by reducing levels of „bad“ cholesterol and increasing levels of „good“ cholesterol.
  • improves the immune system by protecting the body from infections and diseases.
  • helps reduce inflammation and has anti-inflammatory properties that have a positive effect on diseases such as arthritis and diabetes.
  • improves the health and elasticity of the skin and protects against the harmful effects of UV rays.
  • helps improve sleep quality.
  • helps in the fight against aging by slowing down the process itself.
  • it also protects against degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
  • helps control blood pressure and improves blood circulation.
  • improves metabolism and participates in blood sugar control and prevention of diabetes
  • helps improve brain function, memory and mental abilities. the function of the endocrine system – the secretion and regulation of hormones.
  • supports fertility and the function of the female and male reproductive system – egg and sperm production.

CORRECT ACCEPTANCE AND DOSAGE OF RESVERATROL 500MG: The product is intravenous, dissolve the vial and pour into a 100ml jar. sodium chloride. The maximum intake is 500 mg 3 times a week. Recommended number of treatments 5 spread over 28 days.




One of the causes of infertility in women is congenital anomalies of the reproductive system. One of them is the bicornuate uterus.

It is caused by incomplete fusion of 2 embryonic structures called Müllerian ducts. This means that 2 „horns“ are formed in the upper part of the uterus, which give it a heart-like shape.


The condition is usually asymptomatic. It is possible for women to suffer from painful or heavier periods. If there are other congenital anomalies (usually of the kidneys) complaints from the urinary-excretory system could be expected. In women trying to conceive, spontaneous abortions are more frequent.


Pregnancy in women with a bicornuate uterus is considered risky but not contraindicated. Expect more frequent OBGYN visits, as well as the possibility of the baby being born prematurely. Due to the unusual shape of the uterus, in about 50% of cases the fetus is  breech, which means a higher frequency of c-sections.

Other possible pregnancy complications in women with a bicornuate uterus include:

Low birth weight of the baby (due to the smaller uterine cavity)

Arterial hypertension during pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy

Postpartum hemorrhage


The diagnosis can be made with an ultrasound. 3D ultrasound is considered to provide 99% specificity in the diagnosis of a bicornuate uterus. Other tests that may be recommended to you are MRI, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. It is recommended to have your  urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder) checked out as well, because in rare cases concomitant abnormalities are possible.


Treatment is not required except in cases of recurrent miscarriages. Surgical correction of the uterus aims to remove the tissue forming the two horns, and the operation is laparoscopic.

Despite its challenges, a bicornuate uterus doesn’t necessarily mean the end of motherhood dreams. With advances in medical technology and personalized care, many women with this condition can carry out successful pregnancies. Regular monitoring and close collaboration with obstetricians greatly helps to mitigate potential risks and ensure the best possible outcome for both mother and baby.