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OVARIAN RESERVE AND EGG QUALITY- HOW CAN I HAVE THAT ASSESSED?

Egg quality plays a key role in female fertility. Healthy eggs have the best chance of developing into an embryo, implanting in the uterus, and leading to a successful pregnancy.

It is important to note that there is no specific test to determine egg quality. Instead, in medical practice, various tests are combined to give us information about female fertility.

Modern methods for determining egg quality include ovarian reserve testing, hormonal tests, as well as transvaginal ultrasound. The age of the woman is also taken into account, because it is directly related to the quantity and quality of the eggs.

AGE AND EGG QUALITY

As we age, the number of eggs with chromosomal abnormalities, that is, containing too few or too many chromosomes, increases. If fertilization occurs with such an abnormal (aneuploid) egg, the embryo will inherit the abnormality. Most aneuploid embryos will either fail to implant in the uterus or get miscarried. In some cases, the fetus survives but suffers from chromosomal defects. An example of this is Down syndrome, where children have an additional 21st chromosome.

By age 30, about 70% of a woman’s eggs are chromosomally normal. At age 40, only about 35% of eggs are healthy. This is one of the reasons why fertility declines with age.

OVARIAN RESERVE

Unlike men, who create sperm continuously throughout their lives, women are born with a fixed number of immature eggs (1-2 million). Of these, only a few hundred mature and can be fertilized.

It is normal for ovarian reserve to decline with age. Sometimes this process starts earlier (before the age of 40). We call this condition premature ovarian insufficiency. A distinction must be made between “premature ovarian insufficiency” and “premature menopause”. Premature menopause means, there is a complete stop of ovulation. With premature ovarian insufficiency, ovulation occurs, but much less often. The eggs released during ovulation, however, are of reduced quality.

In case you might have premature ovarian insufficiency, your OBGYN will recommend some hormonal tests (Anti-Müllerian hormone, FSH, LH), as well as ultrasound of the ovaries. Depending on the results and your comorbidities, you will be presented with treatment options.

HORMONAL TESTS

1.Antimüllerian hormone (AMH).  AMH is secreted by the granulosa cells of the follicles in the ovaries. Its concentration is proportional to the number of follicles. Therefore, the more follicles there are, the higher the concentration of AMH will be.

2.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is critical for follicle development. It is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the maturation of follicles in the ovaries. A high concentration of FSH on day 3 of the cycle is associated with a smaller ovarian reserve.

  1. Estradiol (E2). It is tested together with FSH on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. A premature rise in estradiol early in the follicular phase is caused by increasing FSH levels in women with declining ovarian reserve.

TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASOUND

Transvaginal ultrasound allows doctors to estimate the number of antral follicles in the ovaries. It is usually performed between the third and twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and involves counting the total number of follicles between 4 and 9 millimeters in both ovaries. Follicles are eggs that can potentially mature and be released during ovulation. A lower number of follicles means you may have problems with egg quality and quantity.

WHAT’S NEXT?

After interpreting your test results, your obstetrician-gynecologist will suggest an action plan tailored to your health condition and personal preferences.

If you have any concerns about your fertility, you can consult New Life Clinic’s reproductive specialists.

ANTI-MÜLLERIAN HORMONE

НА 40 ГОДИНИ СЪМ. ТВЪРДЕ ВЪЗРАСТНА ЛИ СЪМ ЗА БЕБЕ?

В ПОДКРЕПА НА КЪРМЕНЕТО

IN SUPPORT OF BREASTFEEDING AND IMPORTANCE OF THIS PROCESS

Every year, World Breastfeeding Week is celebrated from August 1 to 7 in more than 120 countries around the world with the support of WHO and UNICEF, we will pay attention to the importance of this process and all the benefits associated with it.

Breast milk is undoubtedly the best food you can provide your baby for optimal growth and development. Its composition includes the ideal number of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and, last but not least, it is easily digestible for absorption by the newborn, and there is no risk of intolerance to it. The presence of essential enzymes, hormones and antibodies make it vital for the normal growth, development and good health of your baby. The unique thing about it is that it naturally adapts to each stage of the child’s development while growing, meeting all his/her needs and at the same time has the role of protection from different diseases and infections.

The health effects of breastfeeding are well recognized and practiced in all developed nations and countries. Breast milk is uniquely suited to the baby’s nutritional needs and is a living substance with unparalleled immunological and anti-inflammatory properties that protect both mothers and children from numerous diseases.

One of the essential benefits of breastfeeding is related to the beneficial effect on reducing and preventing obesity. This is because breast milk contains hormones that program the regulation of your baby’s food intake, thus breastfed babies control the amount of milk they consume and stop feeding when they feel full. This helps them control their appetite from a very early stage in their development.

  • Breastfeeding builds strong immunity and prevents frequent illnesses.
  • Breastfed children suffer less from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections or rota viruses.
  • Breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing atopic dermatitis
  • Reduces the risk of developing overweight
  • Breastfeeding is believed to be relevant to the intellectual development of the infant and child.

The World Health Organization strongly recommends that newborns can be fed only with breast milk until 6 months of age and continue to receive breast milk along with complementary foods (at a later stage) for at least the first year of life.

Many women encounter difficulties at the very beginning in the process of breastfeeding. The main concerns are related to pain, sore nipples and the fear that the amount of breast milk offered is not enough. Therefore, there is undoubtedly a need for more medical facilities that support the natural feeding process, as well as more trained counselors to encourage and assist mothers.

However, if you manage to overcome the initial difficulties and start breastfeeding your baby, the benefits can be summarized as follows:

  • Help the process of your uterus returning to its normal size more quickly
  • Builds an initial and special bond with your baby
  • Saves you time and money
  • Convenience – no need to carry bottles or adopted milk formula when you are out of home
  • Breastfeeding burns calories and can help you regain your per-pregnancy weight faster

Source: https://aptekizapad.bg/

ИНФЕКЦИИТЕ ПРЕЗ ЛЯТНАТА ПОЧИВКА

INFECTIONS DURING THE SUMMER VACATION – HOW TO PREVENT THEM?

Each season has its own diseases. In winter it is the peak of respiratory diseases, while in summer the most common are gastrointestinal infections and insect bites. This year, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, we need to be even more careful about our health during our summer vacation.

GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS

They can be both viral and bacterial. They are most often associated with poor hygiene – improper storage or handling of food. Symptoms usually include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, and in children, fatigue and malaise.

Not every vacation needs to include such ailments, as their prevention is relatively easy. As with Covid-19, regular hand washing is extremely important. Since infection is mainly through food, choose very carefully where you eat. Nowadays, one can easily find reviews on the internet for almost any restaurant. In addition, dirty menus, toilets and tablecloths should be a “red flag” that hygiene in the kitchen is no different.

The most dangerous complication of these infections is dehydration associated with diarrhea and vomiting. Postpone your trips to the beach for 1-2 days, rest in a cool place and do not eat hard to digest, greasy food – if your condition worsens, it is best to visit the local medical center.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

Wet swimsuits and synthetic fabrics are an excellent environment for the development of fungi and bacteria. Due to the nature of female anatomy, women significantly more susceptible to infections of the genitourinary system. Therefore, to save yourself  from cystitis, we advise you to always change your wet swimsuit after swimming, as well as to drink plenty of fluids – more frequent urination “washes away” the bacteria.

HEAT RASH

The cause of this ailment is blocked sweat glands. The accumulation of sweat under your skin causes a rash and small, itchy bump. When the bumps break open and release sweat, many people feel an unpleasant prickly sensation on their skin. Anything you can do to stop profuse sweating will help you avoid developing this condition.

Tips that dermatologists give their patients to prevent excessive sweating include:

  • Wearing light, loose cotton clothes.
  • Training in the cooler parts of the day
  • Keep your skin cool

INSECT BITES

Summer is the season of insects – mosquitoes, ticks, bees, flies, wasps and many more threaten to ruin our vacation or walk. Fortunately, in our country mosquitoes are not particularly dangerous, but their bites are unpleasant enough. It is assumed that light clothes, as well as the consumption of garlic could help repel them. Repellents remain the most reliable solution, and some of them also protect against ticks. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, be sure to check if the product is right for you!

Do not try to remove a tick by rotating it or using home remedies but seek medical attention. Your doctor will best explain to you whether antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary and what symptoms to watch out for in the coming days.

МОРЕТО И МОЯТА БРЕМЕННОСТ

 

НА 40 ГОДИНИ СЪМ. ТВЪРДЕ ВЪЗРАСТНА ЛИ СЪМ ЗА БЕБЕ?

I AM 40. IS IT TOO LATE TO HAVE A BABY?

Having your first child at 40 has become a more common occurrence. There are many reasons for a woman to postpone having a baby to a later stage: personal development, health problems, or simply not having met the right partner yet.

Giving birth later in life certainly has some advantages. Usually, women in their 40s already have a career, which means that they can afford to have a longer maternity leave. Older mothers are more patient and emotionally mature, which is a huge plus for raising a new family member.

 Interestingly, women who give birth to their first child later often live longer and are less likely to develop cognitive impairment. Moreover, their children are more likely to attend elite schools and have a higher academic performance.

SOME ISSUES WITH A LATE PREGNANCY

Women are born with a fixed number of eggs in their ovaries, and the ovarian reserve decreases with age. In a normally ovulating woman, one or more of these eggs mature each month under the influence of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). Several hundred more begin to mature but become atretic and “die” every month. As the age progresses, the quality of the eggs decreases.

No matter how healthy a person lives, over the years chronic diseases begin to show their symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases become more common with age. On the one hand, your condition may worsen during pregnancy, and on the other hand, the pregnancy itself may become more complicated.

The risks of miscarriage and premature birth are higher in women over the age of 35. In addition, multiple pregnancies are more common in older women than in younger ones. This phenomenon is because the ovaries more often release more than one egg during ovulation.

IS IT DIFFICULT TO GET PREGNANT AT 40?

The success of modern medicine has made it possible for childbirth to be postponed until the couple is ready for it. Options for couples in need of assisted reproduction include in vitro fertilization, intrauterine insemination, donor eggs and others that you can take advantage of in New Life Clinic.

We must not forget that the chances of conceiving and carrying to term a successful pregnancy are highest until about 35 years of age. This, of course, does not mean that having a baby after 35 is impossible.

WHAT DOES A PREGNANCY AT 40 LOOK LIKE?

Often, fatigue and discomfort associated with pregnancy are more noticeable in women over 40. You are also more likely to develop gestational diabetes or preeclampsia.

Natural childbirth is possible, but there are often indications for a cesarean section.

TAKEAWAY

Just because you’re 40, you don’t have to give up on your dream of having a baby. If you have been trying to conceive for at least 6 months and you are still unsuccessful, consult an assisted reproduction specialist.

КАК ВЪЗРАСТТА ВЛИЯЕ НА ПЛОДОВИТОСТТА?

 

КАКВИ СА НОРМАЛНИТЕ СТОЙНОСТИ В СПЕРМАЛНИЯ АНАЛИЗ

WHAT ARE THE REFERENCE VALUES OF A SEMEN ANALYSIS

Semen analysis is the first diagnostic test that is used to assess a man’s fertility.

 

WHAT PARAMETERS DOES A SEMEN ANALYSIS EVALUATE?

Ejaculate volume > 1.4ml

Total number of sperm in the ejaculate > 39 million

Total sperm motility > 42% o r> 25% actively motile sperm

Immotile sperm up to 20%

Vitality (live sperm) > 54%

Morphology (normally shaped sperm) > 4%

The World Health Organization (WHO) reference values ​​and the Kruger criteriа for morphology are used to determine the examination’s conclusion.

MOST COMMON DIAGNOSES

You may come across one of these terms as the conclusion of your semen analysis:

Normozoospermia – normal semen analysis

Oligozoospermia – reduced sperm count

Asthenozoospermia – reduced sperm motility

Teratozoospermia – deteriorated morphology of sperm

Azoospermia – lack of sperm in the ejaculate

SHOULD I PREPARE FOR THE EXAMINATION?

Sexual abstinence is required within 2-5 days before the test. In addition, severe mental or physical stress as well as high temperatures (sauna, hot shower or bath) should be avoided. This ensures the maximum concentration of sperm and the results are the most objective.

COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS

New Life Specialized Medical Center for Gynecology has a Computer Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA). This is an automated system for sperm analysis, in which the concentration, motility and morphology of sperm is assessed by specialized software, unlike a regular semen analysis, in which these parameters are assessed by a biologist. The main advantage of semen analysis by CASA is that it eliminates the subjectivity associated with the human factor, which allows better standardization of the test.

The results are usually ready within 1 day. Abnormal results are not necessarily a diagnosis. Sometimes this is a temporary condition due to external factors. In these cases, a repeat semen analysis is performed after a certain period of time.

INFERTILITY

 

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10 ИЗНЕНАДИ И ЛЮБОПИТНИ ФАКТИ ЗА БРЕМЕННОСТТА

10 SURPRISES AND CURIOUS FACTS ABOUT PREGNANCY

Pregnancy can be one of the most wonderful periods of a woman’s life, but it also hides many surprises and challenges.

We will present you some interesting and curious facts related to the waiting period of your little big man.

  • During pregnancy, a woman needs only 300 calories more per day, which is equivalent to one fruit and a glass of yogurt.The cliché “eat for two” does not apply.
  • In some cases, hormonal changes have a beneficial effect on hair, skin and nails.Many women have healthier and shinier hair during pregnancy than before they became pregnant.
  • The baby’s fingerprints are formed 3 months after the beginning of pregnancy.Once formed, they do not change for the rest of a person’s life.
  • The average duration of pregnancy in women is 280 days.This equates to 10 obstetric (lunar) months or 9 calendar months and another 1 week
  • The human embryo has a tail that disappears in the 10th week of pregnancy
  • The sucking reflex begins to work in the womb.The baby starts sucking his thumb as early as the 15th week.
  • From the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy, your baby can hear sounds.They can even recognize the songs they listened to during their development in the womb.
  • During pregnancy, the joints become more elastic due to the production of the hormone relaxin.Relaxin is a hormone produced by the corpus luteum and placenta during pregnancy.He loosens the ties, preparing the pelvis for the future birth.
  • The volume of blood in the body during pregnancy increases from 40 to 50%.This extra amount supports the necessary flow of oxygen needed for a normal pregnancy.
  • The placenta is the most important organ that is formed during pregnancy and performs many functions.An interesting fact about it is that it develops 50 kilometers of new blood vessels.

SHOPPING DURING PREGNANCY

 

 

 

КАКВО ПРИЧИНЯВА БЕЗПЛОДИЕ ПРИ ЖЕНИТЕ

WHAT CAUSES INFERTILITY IN WOMEN?

Female infertility factor is the cause of about one third of all infertility cases. The reasons why a woman cannot get pregnant naturally are numerous, and the treatment varies depending on the case. In this article we will highlight the most common of them.

OVULATION DISORDERS

Ovulation disorders occur in nearly 40% of women with infertility. Among them, the most common are polycystic ovarian syndrome and premature ovarian insufficiency.

Hypothalamic dysfunctions (disorders of the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone), as well as increased prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinemia) also lead to ovulatory problems.

ENDOMETRIOSIS

Endometriosis occurs when the endometrium spreads to other anatomical structures: fallopian tubes, ovaries, intestines, bladder and others. This leads to the formation of scar tissue that can block the fallopian tubes and prevent sperm from reaching the egg, therefore preventing fertilization.

TUBAL INFERTILITY

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes can be a consequence of endometriosis, genital infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc.), abdominal surgery. It prevents fertilization as well as the movement of the embryo to the uterine cavity (implantation).

One of the mandatory tests in the diagnosis of infertility is hysterosalpingography – a procedure that assesses the level of obstruction of the fallopian tubes.

UTERINE FIBROIDS

Fibroids are benign tumors (very rarely malignant) that originate in the muscular layer of the uterus. There are different types of fibroids: subserous – those that grow towards the abdominal cavity, intramural – inside the muscle itself, submucosal – growing inward to the uterine cavity. They can lead to infertility, as they:

-Change the position of the cervix, which reduces the number of sperm entering the uterus;

– Change the shape of the uterus, which can interfere with sperm movement or implantation of the fertilized egg;

– Block the fallopian tubes;

– Reduce blood flow to the uterus, which prevents the implantation of the embryo.

STRUCTURAL DISORDERS

In this category fall various congenital anomalies in the shape of the uterus – unicornuate, bicornuate uterus, etc. Adhesions due to uterine infections, injuries and surgery can disrupt implantation, leading to infertility.

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

Autoimmune diseases cause the immune system to attack normal body tissues, which it usually ignores. Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or rheumatoid arthritis, can affect fertility. The mechanisms for this are not fully understood, but are thought to be related to inflammatory reactions.

WHEN TO VISIT A REPRODUCTIVE SPECIALIST?

When to seek help usually depends on your age:

By the age of 35, most doctors recommend one year of trying to conceive before testing.

If you are between 35 and 40 years old, discuss your concerns with your doctor after six months of trying.

If you are over 40, your doctor may suggest testing right away.

Your doctor may also recommend some tests without waiting if you have a disease that is known to affect fertility.

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безплодие

INFERTILITY

IS INFERTILITY ONLY  A WOMEN’S PROBLEM ?

Infertility affects millions of people of reproductive age worldwide – and has an impact on their families and communities. Estimates suggest that approximately 50 million couples live with infertility globally. The term “infertility ” means that a couple has failed to achieve a succesfull pregnancy after one year of trying to get pregnant. For women over the age of 35, the cut-off is 6 months.

In some cases, the woman becomes pregnant but can’t carry the pregnancy to term . This scenario  is also considered infertility.

Infertility is primary when a person has never achieved a pregnancy. Secondary infertility is when a person has already achieved one or more pregnancies.

ARE WOMEN SCAPEGOATED WHEN IT COMES TO INFERTILITY?

In the past, as well as today, in some societies it is women who take the blame for infertility in the family. This was largely due to ignorance of reproductive pathology, as well as some  moral values.

Nowadays, science has confirmed that both women and men can suffer from reproductive problems. Therefore, terms such as female and male infertility factors have been coined.

Interestingly, in about 30% of cases, infertility is due to a purely male factor. Therefore,  blaming women as the only responsible ones for infertility  is scientifically unjustified.

 In 20% of couples, the cause of infertility is in both men and women. A couple is diagnosed with unexplained (idiopathic) infertility (10% of cases) if the cause of infertility cannot be determined by conventional diagnostic methods.

CONCLUSION

Infertility is an extremely painful topic for those who have encountered it. Affected men and women often blame themselves for the problem. The truth is that there is no one to blame. The various conditions leading to infertility are beyond our control and are a matter of an unlucky coincidence.

Fortunately, modern reproductive technologies offer a solution to many cases. The most important thing is not to lose hope, as well as time for diagnosis and treatment.

Common Causes

 

МИСИЯ РЕПРОДУКТИВНО ЗДРАВЕ

MISSION: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

“Mission: Reproductive Health”

If such a long-awaited pregnancy does not occur or you want to check your reproductive status, you can take advantage of the current campaign of New Life Clinic – “Mission: Reproductive Health”

For Consultation with a reproductive health specialist

– Free anti-Mueller hormone test

Because of the required time for the consultations and examinations, please make an appointment in advance on tel. 032 693 693 for the city of Plovdiv or 0879 084 777 for the city of Burgas.

The campaign focuses on topics such as fertility, reproductive health prevention, and ovarian reserve assessment. One of the main goals of the initiatives is to provide information on the options and opportunities facing women for freezing reproductive material because of medical and social reasons – due to cancer treatment, progressively declining ovarian reserve, postponing pregnancy to a later stage or premature menopause.

Antimullerian hormone (AMH) analysis is a blood test that is done quickly and gives information about the ovarian reserve. Its levels rise gradually, starting from the day of birth and reaching a maximum value around the age of 25. With age there is a decline in values, as the period around menopause the results are very low.

All ladies who need a specialized reproductive consultation can book their appointment at New Life Clinic. We remind you that we are the first in-vitro center in Bulgaria, which transfers know-how from Israel in the field of assisted reproductive technologies on the Bulgarian market. The center has modern equipment and our specialists approach each patient individually, paying attention not only to the medical side of the treatment, but also to the human and emotional history behind each of them.

We start the campaign thematically in the first spring month – April, the beginning of new opportunities, aspirations and hopes.

The examinations start on Monday – 04.04.2022 and will continue until the end of the month.

For the city of Plovdiv, the campaign is carried out jointly with the Synevo laboratory.

ANTI-MÜLLERIAN HORMONE

 

 

ЩИТОВИДНА ЖЛЕЗА

THYROID GLAND AND PREGNANCY

THYROID GLAND AND PREGNANCY

The thyroid gland is located in front of the neck. It is made up of two lobes – right and left, which are connected to each other by isthmus. In shape, the body resembles a butterfly. Under the influence of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyrotropin), secreted by the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland produces T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine).

The thyroid gland affects all organs and systems – cardiovascular, nervous, digestive system and reproductive system. It is very important about metabolism and psyche. Disorders of thyroid hormones in women can cause disruption of ovulation, menstruation and even lead to infertility. Sometimes the thyroid gland synthesizes too many hormones – a state of hyperfunction (hyperthyroidism) or too little – hypofunction (hypothyroidism).

The following symptoms can be seen in various forms of hyperthyroidism: • nervousness, emotional lability, hyperkinesis • increased sweating, heat intolerance • palpitations • easy fatigue and shortness of breath with physical exertion • weight loss with increased appetite, rarely – weight gain • increased, rarely decreased appetite • hair loss • increased intestinal motility, diarrhea • swelling of the lower extremities • sleep disturbance • polyuria • menstrual disorders, decreased libido

Symptoms of hypothyroidism: • fatigue • weight gain • dry skin and chills • yellowish skin color • hair loss • hoarse voice • goiter • delayed reflexes • ataxia (uncoordinated movements of the limbs) • constipation • memory impairment • decreased concentration • depression menstrual disorders and infertility • myalgias • hyperlipidemia • bradycardia • hypothermia • myxedema

Thyroid hormones are crucial for the normal development of the brain, nervous system and fetal growth.

During pregnancy, the thyroid gland grows in size by at least 10%, the need for thyroid hormones increases significantly as well as the need for essential elements contained in thyroid hormones such as iodine.

The daily iodine intake during pregnancy and lactation should be at least 250 µg, but should not exceed 500 µg due to the risk of potential thyroid dysfunction. Pregnant and lactating women can meet a significant proportion of their iodine needs through the use of: • iodized salt • foods made with iodized salt (bread, cheese, milk) • natural sources of iodine (fish and seafood)

Iodine-containing combination preparations that contain vitamins and minerals can be taken during pregnancy. Screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is performed in the following cases:

women with clinical symptoms of thyroid disease

women with elevated thyroid antibodies or goiter

women after thyroid surgery

women treated with levothyroxine

women over 30 years of age

family history of thyroid disease

women with type 1 diabetes mellitus or other autoimmune disease

women with a previous abortion or premature birth

multiple pregnancy

obesity (BMI> 40 kg / m2)

administration of Amiodarone, Lithium, iodine-containing X-ray contrast agents in the last weeks before pregnancy

women from iodine deficient regions

What are the normal reference values for TSH in pregnant women?

  • first trimester: 0.1 – 2.5 mIU / L;
  • second trimester: 0.2 – 3.0 mIU / L;
  • third trimester: 0.3 – 3.0 mIU / L.

Explicit hypothyroidism in pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of complications: • premature birth • miscarriage • preeclampsia • gestational hypertension • gestational diabetes • low birth weight • adverse effects on neuro-cognitive development of the fetus • low IQ of the offspring

Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy may also lead to an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, impaired cognitive function of the newborn

Untreated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can lead to: • miscarriage • premature birth • low birth weight • preeclampsia • thyrotoxic crisis

It can cause various changes in the fetus, such as congenital malformations, delayed intrauterine growth, low birth weight, tachycardia, goiter, fetal death and more.

HOW DOES HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS AFFECT YOUR WEIGHT AND YOUR CHANCES OF CONCEIVING?

 

 

 

 

 

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